John L Errington MSc

John Erringtons Engineering Design Website

Year 3: Designs involving active and self-powered systems.

BA Design for Industry Year 3: active designs

Curriculum; Students suggestions; Approach;Follow up; Example calculation;Lecture support; Line following robot; Practical robots; Fire fighting robot; Bomb disposal robot; Demolition robot; Rescue robot; Heat pumps; Recommended Resources; MatWeb


What is energy?; Energy has the ability to do work; What has most energy?; Potential energy; PE Calculation; Kinetic Energy; KE calculation; KE of rotating body; Example of flywheel; Conservation of energy; Falling briefcase; What happens when it hits the floor?; Waste heat; Fallen briefcase; Energy of a hot body; Energy of a doughnut; Energy stored in a stretched spring; Energy stored in a spring; Force; Spring energy example; Converting energy; Energy in stretched rubber band; Entropy?; Stretching a rubber band; Rubber band energy example; Energy stored in a battery; What has most energy?; Conversion efficiency; Rate of release of energy; Releasing energy in a spring; Some ways energy is released; Accelerating the spring; Partitioning energy transfer; Other energy sources; Limit to available energy from battery during rapid discharge ; Energy of a charged capacitor; Summary; Examples of Energy storage;

Sensors and Actuators;

Sensors; More about sensors; Actuators; Actuators; Electrical Actuators; Hydraulic Actuators; 32 – 63 mm bore hydraulic cylinder; Pneumatic Actuators; Power for hydraulic and pneumatic systems; DC motors; DC Motor characteristics; Application ; Why use a DC motor ; AC motors; AC motors: synchronous and induction motors; Hydraulic actuators; Hydraulic pumps and cylinders; Flow control valves; Pneumatic actuators; Pneumatic cylinders; Pneumatic grippers;


Sensors; Trip switches; Strain gauges; Optical sensors; Photodiodes; OptoSwitches; Proximity sensors; Non-contact sensors (1); Non-contact sensors (2); Proximity switches; Rotary and linear position; Rotary shaft encoder; Absolute rotary encoder; Incremental rotary encoder; Rotary position sensors; Linear position; Potentiometric sensors; Open loop control; Servo systems;

Batteries and alternatives for powering portable equipment

Batteries and alternatives; How batteries work: Work function and contact potential; Work function; Periodic table of the elements; Simple 'battery' cell; Alessandro Volta; Primary – or - Secondary; Primary Cell; Rechargeable cells; Battery types compared; Other power sources for portable equipment; Seebeck effect - thermocouples; Peltier effect; Thermopile; Thermogenerator; Thermoelectric generators; Fuel cells; Hydrogen fuel cell diagram; How a fuel cell works
Hydrogen economy; Hydrogen economy - opponents; Gas turbine generators; Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator; Gas turbine for power generation; Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator (2); Diagram of gas turbine generator; Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator (3); UltraCapacitors; Solar (Photovoltaic or PV) cells; What does this mean for a design; Solar battery example applications; PV summary; Resources

Line following robot;

Specifications; Engineering Design issues 1: line detection; Engineering Design issues 2: motive power; Line detection; 3-sensor line detection; 3-sensor line detection: further; Line detection: State transition mapping; State transition diagram; State transition diagram; Partially completed state transition diagram; Analysis of S.T.D.; Motor calculation; Size of motor;

Autonomous guided vehicles;

AGV's; Guidance methods; Inductive guidance; Electro-magnetic field; Guidance and steering; Floor installation ; Advantages & disadvantages of wire guidance; Autonomous guided robots; DARPA Grand challenge; DARPA Challenge winner;

Heating and cooling;

Definitions; Heating; Cooling & Refrigeration; Insulation; K-value; U-value; R-value; Total thermal transmittance of multiple insulating layers; Insulation: values terms and calculations; Comparison of K values for materials; Examples of cooling by vaporisation; Evaporative cooling; Block diagram of refrigerator / heat pump; Heat pump cycle; Work function and contact potential; Seebeck effect - thermocouples; Peltier effect; Applications.



Assessment of "robot olympics"